How to Tie a Fisherman’s Knot

This article is for anyone who needs to learn a quick and easy way to tie a fisherman’s knot.

Grab hold of both ends of the rope. The end in your left hand is end 2, and the end in your right hand is end 1.

Cross end 2 in front of end 1, so that it is behind the loop and pointing downwards.

Pull end 2 through the loop and up to the left, this will create a smaller loop on top of the larger loop underneath.

Using your right hand, pull end 2, though the smaller loop from back to front.

Tighten the loop you made by pulling end 2 with your right hand and the end next to the bigger loop with your left hand.
This will create a knot on top of your larger loop and end 1 should be able to move back and forth enabling you to adjust the loop the the appropriate size.

Pull end 1 through the large loop from behind, pull it upwards and create a small loop on top of the larger loop

Pull end 1 through the smaller loop from behind, then pull the loop to tighten it using your left hand.

Tighten the knot made by pulling the larger loop from either side.

To make this knot more understandable, as well as other knots, use 2 different colors to illustrate and to practice the knot you are trying to teach and to learn a knot for better clarification of which end does what, or goes where…before you try trying it with one rope

Things You’ll Need
One single length of rope

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How to Make Chili

It seems as though every region of the United States has its own spin on how to make chili. As is evidenced by the popularity of chili cook-offs around the states, home cooks have strong feelings about what kind of chili is best. This article provides recipes for three popular types of chili: chili con carne, Texas chili, and chili con queso.

Chile Con Carne
6 ancho chilis

2 pounds beef chuck cut into 1/2″ cubes

1 onion, chopped

2 cloves garlic, chopped

2 tablespoons lard or corn oil

1/2 teaspoon dried oregano, crumbled

Salt, freshly ground pepper

2 cups cooked red kidney beans

Texas chili
2-3 pounds round or sirloin steak, cut into 1/2″ cubes

1 tablespoon vegetable oil

1 large onion, chopped

3 cloves garlic, chopped

1 teaspoon salt

2-3 fresh jalapenos, seeded and chopped

1/4 cup dark chili powder

2 teaspoons ground cumin

1 cup dark beer (use Texan beer if possible)

1/2 cup water

1/4 cup masa (or cornmeal)

Chili Con Queso
2 pounds ground beef

2 medium celery stalks, chopped

2 medium carrots, chopped

½ medium onion, diced

1 anaheim chili, diced

1 pasilla chili, diced

4 jalapeno chilies, diced

8 chili powder, toasted

4 cumin, toasted

3 garlic cloves, chopped

2 pounds peeled tomatoes

1 large ham hock, smoked

4 cups chicken stock

2 cups cannellini beans

2 cups kidney beans

1 cup black beans

1 cup Cheddar cheese, shredded

2 green onion, diced

2 cilantro (fresh coriander), chopped

Chile Con Carne
Prepare the ancho chilis. Toast the ancho chilis in a dry frying pan. Don’t overdo this step, just a light toast is sufficient. When the chilis become fragrant, remove them from the pan. Wearing gloves, remove the stems, seeds, and tear the chilis into small pieces. Place them into a bowl and fill with hot water. Leave them to soak for 30 minutes.

Prepare the beef. Place the beef into a large casserole dish or a saucepan. Add enough water to cover. Place the lid over the pan and simmer over a low heat for 1 hour.
If you’d prefer, you can sear the beef on both sides before cooking it. Heat a few teaspoons of oil in a large stockpot and brown the beef on both sides for three minutes, then cover with water and cook.

Every now and then use a ladle to skim off any fat that rises to the top of the cooking pan.

Prepare the flavorings. Place the anchos, onion, and garlic into a food processor. Pulse them together until they are the consistency of a coarse paste. Then place the lard or oil into a frying pan and heat it over medium heat. Add the processed paste and cook, stirring constantly, for about 5 minutes. Add the oregano, cumin, salt and pepper to taste.

Pour the spice and chili-onion mixture in with the beef. Use a long spoon to stir the mixture well. Cook for another hour, covered, over a gentle simmer.

After the hour is up, add the cooked beans. Leave the chili to cook for another 15 minutes.

Serve the chili. Dish it into bowls and serve with chips, tortillas, or any side dishes you prefer.

Texas Chili
Prepare the meat. Cut the steak into cubes.[1] Heat oil in a heavy skillet over medium heat. Place the cubes and chopped onion into the skillet. Cook until the beef is browned.

Season the chili. Drain off the excess fat. Add the chopped garlic and stir over medium heat for another minute, then pour the beef mixture from the skillet into the crockpot. Add the salt, pepper, chili powder, cumin, beer, and water.

Cook the chili. Place the lid on the crockpot. Cook the chili on low for 8–10 hours.

Create the masa or cornmeal paste. Place the masa or cornmeal in a bowl, and stir in enough water to turn it into a paste. Add the paste to the chili.

Finish cooking the chili. Put the lid on the crockpot and turn it to the highest setting. Let the chili cook for one more hour, to give it time to thicken and for the flavors to meld.

Serve the chili. This chili is delicious with corn or flour tortillas, a dollop of sour cream, and a green salad.

Chili Con Queso
Prepare the beef. In a large pot, cover the bottom with canola oil and add 2 pounds ground beef. Add salt and pepper to taste and sauté for 5 minutes, or until brown. The meat does not have to be cooked all the way through, as it will cook further when all ingredients are combined. Pour the browned beef into a bowl when it is finished.

Add the vegetables and chilis. In the same large pot, heat a little more canola oil. Add 2 chopped celery stalks, 2 chopped carrots, 1 diced Pasilla chili, 1 diced Anaheim chili and 4 diced Jalapeno chilis. Salt and pepper to taste and sauté until softened. Once soft, add 1/2 diced onion and 3 chopped garlic cloves. Continue to sauté all vegetables until soft.

Prepare the spices. In a separate, ungreased pan, combine 8 tablespoons of chili powder and 4 tablespoons of cumin. Toast over a medium heat for just 2-3 minutes, or until the spices begin to smoke. Stir the spices constantly to toast all the way through. Once toasted, add the spices to the pot of sautéed vegetables and incorporate.

Mix in the meat and tomatoes. Once the vegetables and toasted spices are mixed, add the browned beef back to the main pot and stir. Add 1 large can of peeled tomatoes to the pot and mix thoroughly. For added flavor, add 1 ham hock to the middle of the pot and cover with the ingredients. Finish by adding 4 cups chicken stock to cover the ingredients.

Cook the chili. Bring the contents up to a boil, then down to a simmer. Cover and simmer for 3 hours.

Add the beans. After 1 hour of simmering, add 2 cups cannellini beans, 2 cups kidney beans and 1 cup black beans. Stir the beans into the chili, cover, and continue to simmer for another 2 hours. Stir occasionally during the next 2 hours to keep the flavors and ingredients incorporated.

Serve the chili. Ladle the chili into a bowl and garnish with some shredded cheddar cheese, diced green onion, chopped cilantro and a squeeze of lemon (if desired). Allow the cheese to melt through, and serve hot. Enjoy!

For a milder chili, season individual bowls with extra cayenne instead of the whole batch.

Be sure to allow chili to cool thoroughly before refrigeration.

Check the heat scale on the package of Naga Jolokia/Habanero pepper, don’t try to be brave and add more than you think you can handle – it’s hot!

Things You’ll Need
Saucepan/pot or frying pan/skillet or crockpot

Stirring spoon (wooden is best)

Timer if you’re forgetful of the time

Can opener for beans, tomatoes, etc. if not cooking fresh

Serving bowls

Related wikiHows
How to Win a Chili Cook Off

How to Make Chili Con Carne

How to Cook Vegetarian Chili

How to Make Chicken Chili

How to Make Mild Chili

How to Make Chicken Chilli Ramen

How to Make Texas Chili Dip

How to Make Carrot, Chilli and Coriander Healthy Soup

How to Make Tomato Coulis

How to Make Deer Meat Chili

How to Make Catfish Tacos With Thai Cabbage Slaw

How to Make Soul Cakes

How to Make Jalapeno Cornbread

Sources and Citations
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How to Be Honourable

To be honourable is to be kind, genuine and empathetic without expecting a reward for your behaviour. It’s a rare combination of virtues, but with practice anyone can be honourable. Do you want to be the type of person who stands up for your beliefs instead of cowering, who rescues your friends when they need you, and who’s known for being an upstanding citizen? Start by doing little things, like showing up when you say you will or asking someone if they need a hand. When you practice living honestly in everyday ways, and letting people know you have their backs, being honourable will start to feel like second nature.

Developing a Sense of Honor
Be the person you say you are. It’s easy to be a pleasant person, walking around with a ready smile and a “hello” for everyone you see. But being honourable isn’t the same thing as being friendly. When it comes to honor, it’s more important to be authentic. Show the world who you really are, even if it come at the expense of your reputation for being “nice.” To be honourable, you’ve got to be trustworthy.
If you hide your real thoughts and feelings behind a masked expression, try taking off the mask and see what happens. Maybe people will be put off at first, but after awhile they’ll come to trust you more, since you’re revealing more of yourself to them.

This isn’t to say you should go around being surly, but try to be more expressive of how you really feel instead of sugarcoating everything to make social interactions easier or to try to get people to like you.

Do what you say you’re going to do. If you’re constantly backing out of social plans, or not showing up when you said you’d help out, work on your follow through. Maybe you really mean it when you say you’ll hang out with that old friend who keeps calling, but your actions speak louder than your intentions. Central to being an honourable person is ditching your flaky tendencies.
Every seemingly harmless white lie makes you less trustworthy in others’ eyes, and before long people won’t consider you reliable at all. Doing what you say you’re going to do, no matter how small, builds character and develops your sense of honor.

Give it some practice. Eventually you’ll hate the feeling of not following through, and you’ll stop making commitments you can’t stick with.

Strengthen your values. What do you believe in? In any given situation, how do you decide what’s right and what’s wrong? Having strong values is key to being honourable, since acting with honor means doing the right thing, even if others disagree with you. It can be really hard to figure out how to act with honor in any given situation. Your values are what you turn to for answers when there’s no one else you can ask. When you align yourself with them, you can be proud of yourself for having done your best, no matter what the outcome is.
Your values might be aligned with a certain religion or another belief system. Maybe your parents imparted strong values when they raised you. Try to examine your values to make sure you really believe them, since it’s hard to stand up for something when your gut tells you it isn’t really true.

If this concept is difficult and you’re searching for answers, try talking it through with people you see as wise, reading philosophical and religious texts, or attending spiritual services. Explore different value systems and compare their tenets with your life experiences to figure out what feels right.

Care about other people. The honourable among us really care about the people in their life. They’re the parents who work second and third jobs to make sure their kids have enough, the friends who refuse to let their pals get behind the wheel after a night of drinking. Honourable people show their deep love for others through their actions. If the people in your life don’t know you’ve got their backs, it’s time to start showing them that you do. Care about people outside of your inner circle, too. Acting honorably isn’t limited to only helping the people you know and love. What would you do if you were walking down the street and saw someone in need of help?

Question your boundaries. Sure, it’s hard to hand over change to every single person who asks. It’s not possible to help everyone you come across. But being honourable means seeing people as people, respecting their humanity, and giving the what little you have to offer.

Get rid of ulterior motives. If you’re honourable, you help people because you care, and you don’t expect to get paid back. When you do something kind, there’s no self-serving motive behind it; you’re driven by love. Think about the decisions you make every day, and decide what powers them. Only you know whether your interactions are tainted by motives you don’t want others do see.
For example, have you ever given advice that serves you instead of really trying to help the person? If your sister asks you if you think she should move to New York, and you really wish she would stay in town, don’t let your feelings taint your advice. Advise her to do what you think is best for her, not for you.

Don’t build up resentment about helping out, or wonder what you’re getting out of a given situation. If you don’t want to be doing something, you should stop doing it. It’s more honourable to be up front about how you feel than it is to secretly despise something you’re doing.

Behaving Honorably
Work for what you want. Do you want a new car? A boyfriend? Some new clothes? You deserve all of these things, but don’t use shortcuts to get them. It’s so much easier to take the easy way out, but this usually requires hurting someone else, and if you do it often enough it’ll backfire. If you want something, work for it. It’s the honourable thing to do. Don’t steal or try to rip people off instead of paying what you owe.

Don’t shamelessly flirt with someone else’s tipsy girlfriend instead of forming an actual relationship with someone who’s available.

Don’t keep borrowing money from your friends and family instead of getting a job.

Don’t take credit for someone else’s idea instead of coming up with your own.

Speak the truth. Honesty and honor go hand in hand. Work on always telling the truth, whether it’s about your own intentions or an outside situation. It will certainly make you uncomfortable at times, and you might be subject to other people’s anger or hurt feelings. But ultimately, people will appreciate that you’re someone who tells it like it is instead of sugarcoating.
If there’s a situation in which you don’t feel comfortable telling the truth, just don’t say anything. It’s better than lying. Even so, it’s important to tell the truth as often as possible.

When it comes to the tiny lies we tell to spare feelings, you make the call. Just know that if you lie often enough, even in this small way (“No, that dress looks great!” or “Yes, I really liked your speech!”) people will stop trusting your opinion and begin to assume you’re just being nice.

Defend what you believe in. Developing your values is one thing, but standing up for them is quite another. It’s easy to argue with something in your head, but truly honourable people speak up and step in. Defending your values can mean any number of things, and it doesn’t always need to involve a big show. In little ways, you can behave honorably and set an example for other people.
For example, if everyone at work makes fun of a certain person when he’s not around, you could make it clear you don’t think it’s right. Sometimes just saying “I disagree” or even changing the subject every time it comes up is a way to make your opinion known.

Sometimes you’ll be faced with a bigger problem, and you’ll have to choose between standing up for what you think is right and keeping your job, or staying friends with someone, or upholding your reputation as a sweet and genial person. That’s when true honor kicks in, and hopefully all those times you were honourable in little ways will prepare you for the big decisions.

Come to people’s aid. If you were to draw a cartoon of an honourable person, it might look like a guy giving up his seat on the bus for an elderly person while helping a child carry his luggage and offering to front fare for someone who forgot change. These cliches all demonstrate ways to be honourable, and they’re all situations that could happen in real life and provide easy opportunities to be a little honourable. However, true honor is demonstrated when you’re called upon to do something you really don’t want to do, and you do it anyway.
For example, maybe your brother and his two dogs need a place to crash for three weeks after losing their house. Things will be pretty cramped, but he’s your brother, so you do it.

Or maybe you’re in the car on the way to airport to catch a flight to Venice for your honeymoon, and you witness a car run off the road and hit the guardrail. Even though it means you’re going to miss your flight, you stop and offer your assistance.

Never manipulate people. Part of being honourable is acknowledging the effect your words and actions have on other people. You have the ability to help, and you have the ability to hurt. Don’t mess with people’s emotions as a way to get what you want. It’s easy to do this without even realizing it, so try to be more mindful of the impact you’re having.[1]
Don’t take advantage of weakness, like using someone’s illness to gain an edge on them.

Don’t be controlling of those around you. Let them make their own decisions.

Don’t guilt trip people into doing what you want.

Don’t lead people on by making them think you’re more emotionally involved than you really feel.

Ask for forgiveness when you have done something wrong, and forgive mistakes in turn.

Fight against hypocrisy.

If you fight for something and don’t do it yourself, you’re as much at fault for not doing that thing as anybody else is, perhaps more.

You may be attacked physically or emotionally.

Keep in mind that you may be wrong, and listen to others.

Related wikiHows
How to Help a Proud Person

How to Introduce People

How to Finesse People and Situations

How to Practice National Flag Etiquette

How to Be a Good House Guest

Sources and Citations
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How to Swim Butterfly Stroke

The butterfly stroke is one of the most difficult swimming strokes, as it requires a very exact technique, in addition to strength and a good sense of rhythm. The butterfly stroke is often simply referred to by swimmers as the fly. It does requires a lot of practice to perfect it, but when you have it down it is one of the most rewarding, respected and aesthetically pleasing swimming styles currently used in competition.

Perfecting the Stroke
Use the correct arm movement. The arm movement in butterfly stroke can be broken down into three parts: the pull, the push and the recovery. Starting with your arms extended above your head (shoulder width apart), pull your hands towards your body in a semicircular motion, palms facing outwards. Remember to keep your elbows higher than your hands. This is the pull.

At the end of the pull, begin pushing your palms backwards through the water, along your sides and past your hips. This is the fastest part of the arm movement and provides the momentum necessary to complete the release.

A good way to remember the pull and push sequence is to imagine making the shape of a large keyhole with your hands underwater. The pull is the wide part of the keyhole at the top, while the push is the narrow part of the keyhole at the bottom.

The last part of the butterfly arm movement is the recovery which is where your hands must be positioned as they are in motion while finishing your pull and are getting ready to begin the subsequent stroke. Essentially your hands must reach your thighs. A good way to ensure that you have done this part of the stroke successfully is to drag your thumbs on your thighs as you are finishing the stroke. Next, sweep both arms out of the water simultaneously and throw them forwards into the starting position. Your palms should be facing outwards so your thumbs enter the water first, not your pinkies. Also make sure the distance between your arms as you enter the water is no greater than shoulder width apart as this will greatly decrease entry drag allowing you to cut through the water more efficiently.[1]

Master the dolphin kick. The dolphin kick is the name given to the dolphin-like kick of the legs used in butterfly stroke. Imagine kicking your legs like a dolphin (or a mermaid!) would kick its tail underwater. With the dolphin kick, both legs move simultaneously, and should be pressed together to avoid a loss of water pressure.

You should kick twice for each stroke of the arms in butterfly stroke. However, both kicks are not exactly the same – there is one small kick and one big kick.

The small kick is performed while you are making the keyhole shape with your arms. This is because your arms are providing forward momentum in addition to your legs, so the kick doesn’t need to be as strong.

The big kick is performed during the recovery, when your arms come out of the water. During the recovery you tend to lose momentum, so you need a big kick to keep your body moving forwards.

The most common mistake beginners make when performing the butterfly stroke is to kick in a uniform fashion, without alternating between small and big kicks.[2]

Move your body in a wave-like fashion. It’s not just your arms and legs that are required during the butterfly stroke, your whole body needs to get involved!
Practice moving your whole body in a wave-like fashion. Think about the way that a dolphin or mermaid moves in the water — your body should form an undulating S shape as you swim.

More specifically, when your chest rises your hips should be at their lowest position, and when your chest falls your hips should be at their highest position, with your behind breaking the surface of the water.

If you can get your timing right and manage to synchronize your body movement with your arms and leg strokes, you will find the butterfly much easier to master. You will be able to swim faster and find yourself getting tired less easily.[1]

Know when to breathe. Breathing during butterfly stoke can be a little tricky, as it has to be perfectly timed and completed pretty quickly. The correct point to take a breath during butterfly stroke is when your arms are just coming out of the water at the beginning of the recovery phase.

As your arms are about to come out of the water, raise your head until your chin is just above the water and take a breath. Do not turn your head to the left or right – it should be kept straight.[3]
As your arms recover drop your face back into the water and tuck your chin in so it touches above your chest. This will help you to lift your arms a lot higher.

Don’t breathe on every stroke as this will slow you down and make swimming difficult. Try to limit your breathing to every other stroke, or even less if possible.

Put it all together. By combining all of the steps outlined above – the arm stroke, the dolphin kick, the body movement and the correct breathing technique – you will find yourself doing the butterfly stroke! However, bear in mind that this is a tough stroke to perfect and it will take time and practice before you are able to synchronize all of these movements and swim the butterfly stroke correctly.[4]
It’s important to keep working on it though, as a bad butterfly technique can lead to problems in certain muscles and joints, such as the rotatory cuffs in the shoulders. And aside from potentially causing injury, bad technique will also make the butterfly stroke harder to swim.

If you are really struggling with your technique, consider enlisting the help of a swim coach who can walk you through the stroke in more detail. A coach will also be able to observe you while you swim and pick out any flaws in your technique — in this way, a knowledgeable outside perspective could be invaluable in helping you to improve your butterfly.

Using Practice Drills
Do a one-armed butterfly. The first drill you can use to practice your butterfly technique is the one armed butterfly.
Start with your arms at the 11 o’ clock position, or shoulder-width apart. Begin swimming, using the dolphin kick.

On every fourth kick, complete a single stroke with one arm, keeping the other arm pointing straight ahead.

While practicing this drill, you may breathe to the side, rather than lifting your head straight out of the water as you do in full butterfly stroke.

Once you have completed a full length of the pool using a single arm, switch to the other arm to build strength and technique evenly.[5]

Use repetitive arm strokes. This drill is great for improving balance and giving you more control over your stroke.
Begin swimming using the dolphin kick, with your arms straight out in front, one shoulder-width apart.

Instead of the regular arm stroke, practice doing two strokes with the right arm, followed by two strokes with the left arm, followed by two strokes using both arms simultaneously.[5]

Practice your dolphin kick. This drill is great for understanding the rhythm of the dolphin kick, while also helping you to time your breathing better. Keeping your arms locked at your sides and your head underwater, propel yourself down the length of the pool using only the dolphin kick.

Try to alternate between big kicks and small kicks, as described in the previous section, and to get a feel for the rhythm of the movement.

Breathe on every fourth or fifth kick, synchronizing your body movement with your breathing in the way that feels most logical and natural.

Once you have developed a greater understanding for the rhythm of the movement, you can add your arms back into the stroke.[6]

Your kick should come from the core, and try not to bend your knees too much. The primary power in a butterfly kick comes from the core and from the thighs, not from the calves.

If swimming makes you tired DO NOT try and carb load (eating pasta or a rice dish about two hours before swimming). This only hinders your performance. Have light snacks with carbohydrates in them. Things like bread and energy bars will do the trick. No butter allowed.

Do a lot of drills! Drills are the building blocks of swimming any stroke, especially butterfly. Practice drills that will strengthen and improve your kick, arms, breathing, etc.

When taking a stroke, keep your hands about shoulder width apart. Do not allow your hands to hit each other, it will only slow you down.

For drills, float upright and do butterfly kick without arms while trying to stay afloat

When breathing, make sure that your chin does not pass more than above the water. Then, you will be forcing yourself to go up, not forward.

Lifting your arms up as much as possible on the recovery does not make the stroke easier. While it may seem to lessen resistance on your arms, it changes your body position from horizontal in the water to a more vertical position, hence the saying “swimming uphill.” if you have your hands about an inch above the water you should maximize your stroke efficiency.

It may be easiest to learn the butterfly stroke first wearing flippers, however a kickboard shouldn’t be used as this gives the body the wrong shape, and doesn’t represent how the body should be.

Be sure to press with your chest, it should help you with your undulation.

Know your other swimming strokes first; Generally butterfly is the last stroke to be introduced when training for competitive swimming. It requires strength of body and endurance skills, which you should have been building up before through other strokes before attempting butterfly.

In a competition, remember to touch with two hands once you hit the wall, and push off. Not doing a two hand touch will result in a disqualification. Also, do an open turn. Touch with both hands and lift one arm over your head and your other arm down through the water simultaneously and make your body follow it. Then, both your arms will meet and connect to push off the wall in a streamline position. This is the fastest way to get off a wall.

Butterfly is a very tiring stroke, so be sure not to eat too much before swimming, to avoid cramps.

Do not be discouraged; although this is a hard stroke for most, you are fully capable of achieving a swim in 35 seconds when fully competitive.

Running every day is not good for butterflies, as it can cause injuries to the knees, which are important in butterfly even though they aren’t supposed to bend very much. Try to get your primary cardio from swimming.

Related wikiHows
How to Swim

How to Swim the Breaststroke

How to Perform a Breaststroke Turn

How to Exercise to Become a Better Swimmer

How to Do a Flip Turn (Freestyle)

How to Become a Lifeguard

How to Assemble Swedish Goggles

How to Go Innertubing

How to Breathe for the Freestyle Stroke

Sources and Citations
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How to Hook a Shrimp

Dead or alive, fresh or frozen, shrimp are one of the best baits for inshore saltwater fishing. Black drum, bonefish, flounder, grouper, jackfish, pompano, redfish, snook, sea trout, sheepshead, tarpon, and whiting are among the species you can catch with this crustacean. There are also a number of ways to hook a shrimp, depending on whether you’re fishing it live or dead and how you’re presenting it.

Methods for Rigging Live Shrimp
Hook the shrimp through the head when casting or trolling. Many fishermen like to hook their shrimp through the head. There are two ways to do this. Insert the hook from under the shrimp’s head, and push the barb out on top, avoiding the vital organs. This method is preferred when fishing the bait off the bottom.

Insert the hook through the top of the shrimp’s head, working the point under the vital organs before pushing it out elsewhere on the top of the head. This method is preferred for bottom fishing.[1]

There is one drawback to hooking a shrimp through the head: it is more likely to fall off the hook.[2]

Hook the shrimp crosswise through its carapace for drift fishing or float-rigging. Poke the hook through just under the shell tip, avoiding the stomach and pancreas. (These appear as dark spots on the shrimp’s body.) This takes advantage of the shrimp’s swimming action.
You can also hook the shrimp just below its head and thread the shrimp so that the hook comes out in the center of the carapace between its vital organs. This lets you cast further and retrieve the shrimp more easily, but it will die sooner than if hooked crosswise through the carapace.

Hook the shrimp through the tail when casting for cruising fish. This method lets you cast still further, as the shrimp’s head, where most of its weight is, will propel the bait further without tearing the shrimp’s body off the hook. Break off the shrimp’s tail fan, then thread the hook through the tail center to hide it and poke it out through the underside of the tail, far enough for the shrimp body to cover the hook eye.
You may want to use a baitholder hook, one with barbs on its shank, to better hold the shrimp’s tail in place.

Breaking off the shrimp’s tail fan releases a fish-attracting scent.

You can also hook the shrimp crosswise through the tip of its tail. This method is preferred when dealing when heavy bottom snags other than weeds.

Bury the hook in the shrimp’s body when fishing in a lot of weeds. This method of rigging a shrimp is similar to the self-weedless rigging that bass fishermen use when fishing plastic worms. Break off the tail fan, then run the point completely through the tip of the tail. Pull out the shank and rotate the hook so its point faces the shrimp’s underside, and then bury the point in the meaty part of the tail.[3]
This self-weedless arrangement can be fished on a Carolina rig. Thread a 1/4 ounce (7.09 g) sliding sinker onto your line, then tie on a swivel. On the other end, tie 6 to 12 inches (15 to 30 cm) of leader and your hook, then bait it with a shrimp. The weight will take your baited hook to the bottom, while the swivel will keep it from sliding all the way to the hook, and the leader will let your bait rise just off the bottom.[4]
You can also use this arrangement with a 3-way swivel. Attach your line to one end of the swivel, your bait and leader to a second end, and a 1/4 to 2 ounce (7.09 to 56.7 g) bell or dipsey sinker to the third end.[5]

Methods for Rigging Dead or Frozen Shrimp
Dismember the body. While live shrimp entice fish to strike by how well they swim, dead shrimp draw fish by how they smell. For that reason, you can break off the head, feet, and tail fan before threading the rest of the body on the hook – and some anglers don’t even bother to take this step.

Thread from the head end or the tail end. Either method is valid; you just have to make sure the entire shank of the hook is covered.

Sweeten your jig with dead shrimp. Dead shrimp are great for adding the test of real crustacean to a jig, whether it has a skirt or a soft plastic body. If you decide to tip your jig, cut the shrimp with a knife into hook-shank-length pieces. This will ensure the bait is the right length and, by cutting instead of breaking, keep the flesh firmer and on the hook longer. For particularly meaty pieces of dead shrimp, you may want to add a trailer hook to ensure that the fish don’t take the bait and miss getting hooked.

Some anglers prefer to pinch off the tail fan and joint above it, then thread the shrimp tail-first onto the jig head, making sure the shrimp body lies flat when the hook is pushed through the body.[6]

Keeping Live Shrimp
Choose your bucket wisely. You can keep live shrimp in either a single-layer bucket or a two-layer minnow bucket. A two-layer minnow bucket makes it easier to change the water as needed.
Some guides use 5 to 15-gallon (18.9 to 56.8 l) buckets.

Know what your bucket can hold – and don’t overfill it. Too many shrimp in the water means some of them will start to die – and when some die, others will soon follow.

Keep the water cool. Check the temperature regularly, and add ice as needed to maintain it. Change the water every so often to keep the shrimp in cool and clean water.

Oxygenate. Like any other marine creature, shrimp need a supply of oxygen to stay alive. There are two ways you can supply it:
Use an aerator.

Use an oxygen-releasing tablet. Both of these items are available for use with minnow buckets and will work just as well with shrimp.[7]

Keeping Dead and Frozen Shrimp
Preserve dead shrimp like pork rind. Dead shrimp can be preserved in brine and carried in small jars the way freshwater fishermen carry pork rind in their tackle boxes. You follow this procedure:
Get 1/2 to 1 pound (226.8 to 453.6 g) of fresh shrimp.

Remove the shells, heads, and tails.

Cut them into pieces twice the size at which you’d fish them live.

Place a layer of salt in the bottom of a small jar.

Place a piece of cut shrimp on top of the salt.

Place a layer of salt on top of the cut shrimp.

Place another piece of cut shrimp on top of the salted shrimp.

Repeat alternating between salt and shrimp layers until the jar is full. The salt will preserve and toughen the shrimp to make it stay on the hook longer.

Refreeze unused frozen shrimp. Unused frozen shrimp can be packaged and re-frozen for use on another fishing outing, as long as they haven’t spoiled. It’s best to check with your significant other about doing so and to carefully separate the packages of frozen shrimp from frozen foodstuffs and label them as frozen bait shrimp.[8]

When fishing live shrimp, use the smallest, lightest hook you can get away with for the species of fish you’re after to allow the shrimp to swim as freely as possible for as long as possible. Generally, the harder the fish’s mouth, the larger and stronger the hook needs to be, and you may also prefer a treble hook to a single hook in such cases. Typically, you won’t need to use anything larger than a 3/0 or 4/0 hook.[9][10] Check the area you plan to fish to find out whether it has bait shops that sell bait shrimp. Also check with the jurisdiction for any regulations regarding the use of shrimp as bait.[11]
Sources and Citations
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How to Melt Butter

Melt butter on the stovetop if you want to end up with perfect, evenly melted butter, or if the recipe calls for browning. If you want to save time, use a microwave oven instead, but follow the instructions here to avoid heating it too quickly and unevenly. Finally, if you are only trying to soften butter that was kept in the fridge or freezer, many possible options are provided.

Melting or Browning Butter on the Stovetop
Cut the butter into pieces. Cut the butter into cubes or chunks so the heat doesn’t have to melt its way slowly through the butter to reach the center. The more surface area you expose to the heat, the faster the butter will melt.
You don’t need to aim for an exact size. Try cutting a stick of butter into four or five pieces.

Place the butter in a heavy pan or double boiler if possible. A pan with a heavy base should distribute heat more evenly than thin pans. This helps minimize the chance of burning the butter, by melting every part of it at a similar rate.[1] A double boiler is even safer. Even a light pan, however, may produce more evenly melted butter than a microwave.
You can make your own double boiler by stacking two pans.

Heat on low. Butter melts between 82 and 97ºF (28–36ºC), which can be about room temperature on a hot day.[2] Turn the heat on low to avoid heating the butter too far past this point, which can result in burning or smoking.

Watch until 3/4 of the butter has melted. The heat should remain low enough that the butter melts without browning. Use a spoon or spatula to spread the butter over the bottom of the pan as it melts.

Remove from heat and stir. Turn off the heat or move to another stove burner, and stir the mostly melted butter.[3] The butter and pan surrounding the unmelted chunks are still hot, and should be enough to melt the remaining butter. This method has a much lower risk of burning compared to leaving the butter on the stove to melt the rest of the way.
Return to the heat for thirty seconds if there are still chunks after stirring.

If the recipe calls for browning, heat until specks appear. You do not need to brown your butter unless the recipe specifies browned butter. If it does, keep the heat low and stir the butter continually with a gentle motion. The butter will foam, then form brown specks. Once you see these specks, remove from heat and stir until the butter turns amber brown, then pour into a room temperature dish.

Melting Butter in the Microwave
Cut the butter into chunks. The microwave will heat the butter from the outside in, so chop the butter into several pieces to increase the surface area that can be heated. This will reduce uneven heating, although you still shouldn’t expect perfectly even heating in a microwave.

Cover the dish of butter with a paper towel. Place the butter into a microwave-safe dish, then cover with a paper towel. Butter may splatter during the rapid melting a microwave causes. The paper towel should protect the microwave’s interior from these splashes.

Heat the butter for ten seconds on low or defrost. Microwave ovens are much faster at melting butter than the stovetop, but also much more likely to cause burning, separation, or other problems. Start out cautiously by setting the microwave to “low” or “defrost” if possible, then microwave your butter for ten seconds.

Stir and check progress. The butter has most likely not melted by now, but because butter melts at a relatively low temperature, each ten second interval can have a dramatic effect. Stir to evenly distribute the heat and see if there are any chunks.
Note: remember to remove silverware from the bowl before returning it to the microwave.

Repeat the process until the butter is mostly melted. Replace the paper towel and zap the butter for another ten seconds, or five seconds if the butter is nearly done. Keep checking on progress until there are only tiny chunks remaining. Remove the dish carefully from the microwave, as it may be hot.

Stir to melt remaining pieces. The tiny pieces remaining can be melted with the residual heat. Stir the butter until the entire dish is golden and liquid.
Butter with greasy droplets or white residue on the surface has been microwaved too long. It can still be used for sauteéing or adding flavor to savory dishes, but may negatively affect the texture of baked goods.[4]

Softening Butter
Know how to tell when butter is soft. Unless a recipe gives you a specific description of texture, butter is considered soft when it’s about room temperature. It can easily be squished by a spoon, but still keeps its shape when left alone.

Cut butter into pieces before softening. There are several common methods of softening butter described below. For any of these methods, however, the butter will soften more quickly if cut into small cubes first.

Leave butter on the counter near the oven. If the butter isn’t frozen and the room is warm, small pieces of butter may only take a few minutes to soften. This is especially easy if you have the oven on nearby, or if the oven’s top tends to stay warm constantly due to a pilot light.
Do not place the butter directly on top of a warm oven, unless it is frozen. Keep an eye on butter in hot places to make sure it doesn’t melt, as this can happen rapidly.

Soften butter more quickly by mashing or beating it. To speed up the softening process, use electric mixer, or use this tip to easily mash the butter by hand. Stick the butter in a sealed zip lock bag with most of the air squeezed out. Using a rolling pin, your hands, or any heavy object, roll or mash the butter repeatedly.[5] After a few minutes, the butter should feel significantly softer, without any signs of melting.
Instead of a zip lock bag, you could put the butter between two sheets of parchment paper or wax paper.

Place a container of butter in a warm water bath. Fill a large bowl partway full of warm water, avoiding steaming hot water. Put the butter in a sealed zip lock bag or in a smaller bowl resting in the water bath. Keep a close eye on the butter and poke it occasionally to check the texture, as this method should only take a couple minutes to soften refrigerated butter.[6]

Rapidly soften frozen butter by grating it. If you can’t wait for frozen butter to thaw, grate it using a coarse, large-hole grater. The grated shreds of butter should thaw and soften within a few minutes in a warm room.[7]

If you frequently use butter to fry food at high temperatures, or you want to extend its shelf life, consider clarifying it by heating the melted butter until it foams. Clarified butter is more resistant to smoking or burning at high heat than regular butter, but does have a less rich flavor.[8] Choosing unsalted butter instead of salted butter will give you more control over how much sodium to add to your dishes, which is particularly important if you have high blood pressure or are on a low-sodium diet.

If you melt butter on the stovetop, then do not allow it to brown quickly or to burn. This will compromise the flavor of your finished product.

Things You’ll Need

A microwave-safe bowl

Paper towels

A pan for heating on the stovetop

Spoon or spatula

Related wikiHows
How to Clarify Butter

How to Make Drawn Butter

How to Soften Butter Quickly

How to Make Butter by Whipping

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How to Measure Centimeters

You would usually use a metric ruler or meter stick to measure centimeters. There are also ways to estimate length in centimeters and to convert length measurements made in other units to equal values described in centimeters.

Method One: Measuring Centimeters
Look at the numbers on a metric ruler. Each number on a metric ruler corresponds to a full centimeter.[1]
Metric rulers only deal with centimeters and millimeters, so it usually makes sense to deal with rulers when measuring centimeters. You could also use a meter stick instead of a ruler, though.

Note the smaller lines in between. The little lines in between full numbers on a metric ruler each correspond to a full millimeter, which is one-tenth of a centimeter.
Each 1 mm is also 0.1 cm.

Place the end of the ruler at the edge of the object. To measure the length of an object in centimeters using a metric ruler, you first need to set the “0” edge of the ruler to the starting edge of the object to be measured. Keep the ruler as flat and parallel against the measured edge of the object as possible.

There may not be a marked “0” on the ruler, but the “0” edge is the edge closest to the “1 cm” measurement.”

Read the mark at the opposite edge of the object. Identify the nearest mark that matches the opposing edge of the object being measured. This mark will tell you how long the object is in centimeters.
If the object’s ending edge lands nearest a full number, the object’s length will be a full centimeter value.
Example: If the length of an object measures from the 0 edge to the 4 mark, that object is exactly 4 cm long.

If the object’s ending edge lands nearest an unnumbered mark, the object’s length will be the sum of the full centimeter value before that mark plus the value of the unnumbered mark measured in centimeter tenths.
Example: If the length of an object measures from the 0 edge to the third unnumbered mark after the 4 mark, the length of that object is 4.3 cm.

Method Two: Estimating Centimeters
Note a few objects that are roughly 1 cm long. If you do not have a measuring stick but you need a rough estimate of an object’s length in centimeters, you can use any object that is known to have a length that roughly equals one centimeter.
One of the easiest object’s to use might be a standard pencil, pen, or highlighter. The width or diameter of a standard pencil is close to 1 cm in distance.

Other options include the length of a staple, the width of five CDs or DVDs stacked together, the thickness of a standard notepad, and the radius of a U.S. penny.[2]

Place the item on a sheet of paper. Place the item you want to measure on top of a blank sheet of white or light colored paper. Make sure that the entire item fits on the paper.
Mark the starting edge of this object using a separate pencil or pen.

The paper needs to be light in color so that you can clearly see the marks being made.

Place one measuring object at the starting edge. Line up one edge of your measuring object with the starting edge of your item to be measured. For instance, if you are using the width of a pencil to estimate centimeters, place the pencil perpendicular against the side of the item being measured, so that its eraser or unsharpened point lies flat against the edge being measured. One side of the pencil should be flush against the edge of the measured item, while the other side should extend inward along the measured edge.

Mark the opposite edge of the measuring object. On the opposite side of your measuring object, make a small mark with a pencil or pen, placing it as close to the item being measured as possible.

Shift the position of the measuring object. Pick up the measuring object and re-position it so that the opposite edge of that object now lies on the mark previously created. Make another mark on the second side of the measuring object.
Make sure that the measuring object is flat against the side of the item being measured each time you shift its position. The item being measured must remain in the same position the entire time.

Repeat this process until you reach the very end of the item being measured.

Also make sure that the ending edge of the object is also marked.

Count the gaps. When finished, lift away the measuring object and the item being measured. Count the number of gaps or spaces in between your marks. This number is a rough estimate of the number of centimeters your measured item equals.
It is important that you count the gaps and not the lines/marks.

Method Three: Converting into Centimeters from Other Metric Measurements Convert millimeters to centimeters. There are 10 millimeters in 1 centimeter. To convert a measurement taken in millimeters to a measurement in centimeters, you need to divide the measurement by 10.

Example: 583 mm / 10 = 58.33 cm

Know how to convert meters to centimeters. There are 100 centimeters in 1 meter.
To convert a measurement taken in meters to an equal measurement in centimeters, you should multiply the original measurement by 100.

Example: 5.1 m * 100 = 510 cm

Calculate centimeters from kilometers. There are 100,000 centimeters in . If you want to convert a measurement originally taken in kilometers to an equal centimeter value, you need to multiply the original measurement by 100000.

Example: * 10000 = 278000 cm

Method Four: Converting into Centimeters from Imperial Measurements Convert inches to centimeters. In 1 inch, there are 2.54 centimeters. This value is not constant, however, so you will need a special conversion factor to turn inches into centimeters.
If you need to convert a measurement originally taken in inches to its equal centimeter value, you need to divide the number of inches by the value 0.39370.[3]
Example: 9.41 inches / 0.39370 = 23.9 cm

Calculate centimeters from feet. For every 1 foot, there are 30.48 centimeters. As with inches, however, the ratio is not constant, so you will need a separate conversion factor.
To convert a measurement originally taken in feet to a separate measurement described in centimeters, you need to divide the original measurement by 0.032808.[4]
Example: 7.2 feet / 0.032808 = 219.46 cm

Know how to convert yards to centimeters. There are 91.44 centimeters in every 1 yard. As with other imperial to metric conversions, you need to use a separate conversion factor to change yards into centimeters. If you want to convert a measurement taken in yards to one in centimeters, divide the original yard value by 0.010936.[5]
Example: 3.51 yards / 0.010936 = 320.96 cm

Things You’ll Need
Metric ruler (or similar metric measuring stick)




Sources and Citations
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