How to Wash Viscose

Viscose is an easily-dyed, non-static fiber made from wood cellulose. Viscose is often referred to as “faux silk” and goes by the everyday name of rayon. Viscose’s high moisture absorbency (13%, as opposed to 8% for cotton) and shade depth allow it to be dyed with deep and brilliant colors, but also can make it a delicate delicate to wash. See Step 1 below to start learning how!

Steps
Washing Viscose (Rayon) Clothing
Always defer to the garment’s care label. Generally, rayon clothes are fairly fragile, but can still be machine-washed with care. However, some rayon clothes are un-washable. To avoid tearing your clothing, bleeding colors, or otherwise ruining your favorite clothes, always follow the instructions on the care label.
Though this section contains instructions on both machine-washing and hand-washing viscose (rayon) clothing, these instructions should be taken as generalities and not as hard and fast rules. In other words, always prioritize your garment’s unique care instructions over the ones provided in this section.

Hand wash in cool water. If your rayon clothing’s care instructions specify that it can be washed, it’s almost always better to hand-wash it than to machine wash it. Rayon clothing is extra-fragile when it’s wet and, thus, is less likely to be damaged by your own careful hands than by the agitation of a washing machine. Place your rayon clothing in cool or temperate water and add hand-washing detergent. Gently work and massage the soap suds into the clothing, taking care not to handle the clothing roughly.
Never squeeze, bunch up, or wring out rayon clothing to remove water, as this can tear the delicate fibers. Instead, gently shake any excess moisture out.

Machine wash with like clothing. If you’re confident that your rayon clothing won’t be damaged by machine washing, try to ensure that only similar types of rayon clothing are in the load. Rougher clothes, like denim jeans, can catch on the rayon during the wash cycle, pulling and tearing it.
Use cool water and a gentle washer setting for added security.

Alternatively, use a net washing bag to protect your clothing. Another way to protect your rayon clothing in the washing machine is to place all of the rayon clothing in your load into a net laundry bag. This ensures it doesn’t mix with the other clothing in your load, eliminating much of the risk of tearing.

Line dry. When your rayon clothing is washed, remove each piece of clothing individually and gently shake it to remove moisture. Smooth out any wrinkles with your hands. Then, hang on a non-metal wire to dry (metal wires can leave rust spots).
Alternatively, you can use a drying rack or simply dry your clothing on a clean, flat surface.

Avoid using an electric dryer. In addition to having the problems associated with washing machines (harsh agitation, etc.), electric dryers are also known to shrink rayon clothing and drastically shorten the life of the garment.[1] If you can avoid using an electric dryer for your clothing, do so. If you can’t, use a low temperature setting and dry only with other pieces of rayon clothing.

Iron rayon clothing inside out. Never apply a hot iron to the outer face of a rayon garment – this can burn and melt the fibers in the fabric, creating an unattractive “shine” that can’t be removed.[2] Always turn rayon clothing inside out before using an iron. To provide additional protection, you may also want to iron the clothing while it is slightly damp.
If you must iron rayon clothing right side out, place a cloth between the hot surface of the iron and the garment to protect the fabric.

Washing Viscose (Rayon) Rugs
Have the rug dry cleaned if it is very important to you. Viscose is a fairly fragile fiber and also one that is very vulnerable to bleeding dye. Because of this, it’s easy to damage viscose rugs or cause them to bleed by simply trying to clean them. If your viscose rug has sentimental value, it may be a better idea to have the rug professionally dry-cleaned than to risk irreversible damage or dye-bleeding by cleaning it yourself.

Shake your rug outside. The goal of cleaning a viscose rug is essentially to get the rug as clean as possible while keeping it as dry as possible. Thus, before using any liquid detergents, it’s a wise idea to try to clean your rug with methods that don’t require getting it wet before trying to clean it with methods that do. Take your rug outside and shake it firmly to remove any loose dirt or dust. You may also try beating the rug against a railing or pole for added power.

Vacuum the rug. Next, use a vacuum to remove any ground-in dirt or sediment. Run the vacuum head over the rug several times both with and against the grain, paying extra attention to any extra-dirty spots.
If you can, use a head attachment that doesn’t have mechanical brushes. Viscose is fairly fragile and the rough action of mechanical brushes can easily cause it to tear.

Ensure the rug won’t move while you’re scrubbing it. If your rug is still dirty, you may need to carefully wash it. Place the rug on a mounting board or secure it to a table you don’t mind getting dirty before cleaning. Washing viscose carpeting requires some scrubbing, so you won’t want the carpet to slip around on the floor while you scrub it and you definitely don’t want it to bleed dye into the floor or any nearby carpeting.

Use a soft brush to gently scrub with soap and water. Heat water to a lukewarm temperature and combine with a few drops of soap or carpet detergent to create a cleaning solution. Use a soft-bristled brush (like a window-washing brush) to scrub this solution into problem areas of the rug. Avoid hard-bristled brushes or mechanical brushes, as these can easily tear the fragile viscose fibers. Be conservative with your cleaning fluid – the less moisture you use, the lower the chance of dye bleeding. It’s wise to test your cleaning solution on a small portion of the rug that won’t be seen before cleaning the whole thing. This way, you’ll know immediately whether your solution causes dye bleeding or other distress to the fabric before proceeding.

Wash with vinegar to minimize yellowing. Cellulose fibers (including viscose) turn yellow when wet. To help minimize this unsightly yellowing, lightly rinse the the wet portions of the rug with a mixture of vinegar and water. The acetic acid in the vinegar helps prevent yellowing as the rug dries, though it may not eliminate yellowing entirely.

Vacuum again. To remove as much moisture as possible from your rug, vacuum a second time after you’ve finished using your liquid cleaners. Pay special attention to any wet areas.
As directed above, you’ll want to avoid using head attachments that have mechanical brushes to prevent damage to the rug.

Optionally, spritz the rug with dilute fabric softener. Viscose fibers can stiffen as they dry, creating clumped, splotchy sections on your rug. To help prevent this, you may want to mist the rug ever-so-delicately with a mixture of fabric softener and water using a spray bottle. This can prevent the fibers from stiffening and lessens eliminates the dreaded “clumps”. You may still find that you need to break up clumps after the rug dries. Do so gently, by hand.

Dry face-down. Allowing your rug to dry face-down lessens the yellowing effect that can occur as viscose dries. Place your viscose rug in a clean, dry place or hang it horizontally as it dries. However, note that this will make the underside of the rug yellow more than normal.[3]

Don’t place the rug on or near any carpeting until it is completely dry. As mentioned above, viscose is notorious for bleeding dye when wet. Thus, you’ll want to keep your rug far away from any light-colored fabrics (especially expensive carpeting) while you’re waiting for it to dry. Dye stains can be very tricky to remove from carpeting and the bleeding of dye from the rug itself is virtually irreversible.

Things You’ll Need
Washing Viscose (Rayon) Clothing
Detergent

Sink (for hand washing)

Washer/dryer (for machine washing)

Clothes line

Washing Viscose Rugs
Water

Soap or anionic detergent

Vacuum

Cleaning head without mechanical brushes

Vinegar

Fabric softener (optional)

Sources and Citations
http://www.fibre2fashion.com/industry-article/33/3252/procedure-for-viscose-and-viscose-wool-carpet-washing1.asp

http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/25889/anionic-detergent

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How to Kill a Process in Command Prompt

The Windows Task Manager is a program designed to help you control processes running on your computer. You can create and kill processes or perform other various actions in Task Manager, but Task Manager might sometimes be insufficient for what you want to do. Some locked processes or frozen programs may not even terminate even if you attempt to kill them from Task Manager. When you encounter problems such as these, you’re not out of options. A program in Windows called Command Prompt may help you. Although Command Prompt may seem primitive, it can perform various actions than Task Manager can’t such as killing stubborn processes. If you want to kill a process on your computer using Command Prompt, read on!

Steps
Viewing Processes Currently Running on Your Computer
Start Task Manager. Press the key, the key, and the key in consecutive order at the same time to open Task Manager.

View the names of the running processes and identify the problematic process. Click the Processes tab in Task Manager and find the name of the process that you want to kill.
Windows 8/8.1 users should click the Details tab.

If a program that is currently running on your screen is frozen and you want to kill it, an easy way to find its name is to click the Applications tab (Processes tab in Windows 8/8.1), right click the window’s name, then click Go to process (Go to details in Windows 8/8.1).

If the Task Manager window does not display any tabs, double-click in the indicated space in the window to show them.

Killing Processes Currently Running on Your Computer
Open the Start menu. Press the key.

Type Command Prompt or cmd to search for Command Prompt.

Start Command Prompt as an Administrator. Right click the first result that appears in the Start menu and click Run as Administrator.
If a User Account Control dialog appears, click on it.

Type taskkill /f /im into Command Prompt.

Space at least once after completing the previous step, type a quotation mark, type the name of the process you want to kill, then type another quotation mark to top it off.

Kill the process. Press the key.
Command Prompt should display a message similar to SUCCESS: The process “example.exe” with PID 0000 has been terminated.

Warnings
Do not kill critical Windows processes using this method. If you kill a Windows-reliant process using Command Prompt, you might cause system instability or crashes.

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How to Earn Money Through Google Adsense

Money for nothing? Well, not quite—but close! Google’s AdSense is a revenue-sharing opportunity for small, medium and large web sites that places ads for goods and services that are relevant to the content of your site, targeted to the people who frequent your pages. In turn, you get paid a small amount when the ad is either displayed on your page, or clicked on. We’ll show you some good ideas that added to your own, will help increase your AdSense revenue.

Steps
Creating an Ad Unit
Sign into your AdSense account. Go to AdSense, and click on My ads in the upper left.
Create a new Ad unit. In the main screen area, under Content > Ad units, click the +New ad unit button.

Name your ad unit. This can be any name that suits you, but many find creating a standard naming format helps them manage large amounts of data. For example, using [target site for the ad]_[ad size]_[ad date] is one approach, that would look like this: mywebsite.com_336x280_080112. Whatever format you decide to use for naming, make that your standard.

Pick a size. See “How to Do It” below for details, but Google has found best practices that generate more clicks.

Set your ad type. This determines the types of ads you will see on your website: text only; text and image/rich media; and image/rich media only.

Create a custom channel. A custom channel lets you group ad units however you choose, such as by size or location on a page.
You can track performance by custom channel, and turn your channel into a targetable ad placement so advertisers can target their ads to your ad units.

Create your ad style. This lets you choose colors for the various components of an ad: border, title, background, text, and URL. It also lets you choose corner styles, from square to very rounded, a font family, and a default font size.
It’s good practice to create an ad style that harmonizes with the look and colors of your website.

You can use Google’s presets, or use your own custom settings. In either case, a sample ad on the right will show you how your ad will appear

Get the code for the ad. When you’re done with the ad setup, either save your ad unit, or click the Save and get code button at the bottom to get the HTML code for your site.
If adding code to your site is a puzzle you want help with, click here for Google’s code implementation guide.

How to Design Your Ad Campaign
Analyze your content. In designing any kind of ad campaign, it’s crucial to know who your target is. If you’re writing a food blog that caters to single men on a budget, for example, you’ve narrowed the scope of who you will be appealing to. You’ve also got a very good focus point for your ads. What are things single men who cook drawn to? Here are some possibilities: dating, cars, movies, politics, and live music.
Think about who frequents your website, write down what you feel are the most important characteristics of your viewers.

Fine tune advertisements. While AdSense will auto-populate your page with what they feel are relevant ads, use their tools to provide tighter controls. Set up channels. Channels are like labels that let you group your ad units your way—by color, category, or pages. By setting up channels, you can get detailed reports on the performance of your ad units, and use that to your advantage. For example:
Use one style of ad on one group of pages, and another style on another group. Track and compare the performance of the two styles, and pick the best performer.

Compare performance on pages that focus on different things. For example, if your pages about gardening perform better than your pages on cooking, you might consider adding more to your gardening pages.

If you have separate domains, set up a channel to track each of them to see which is generating the most clicks.

Optimize your ad placement and site design. Google has found there are places where ads are more effective, and places where they are less effective. Ads that appear when you first arrive at your page (i.e., “above the fold” as they say in the newspaper world) tend to be more effective than those that are below the fold.

Ads on upper left tend to perform much better than ads on the lower right.

Ads directly above the primary content, and ads that appear at the bottom of the page and above the footer tend to perform very well.

Wider ads are generally more successful, as they are much easier to read.

Ads that display images or video perform very well.

Using colors that complement your website colors will make them more readable, and so more effective.

Learn how AdSense works. AdSense automatically sends ads to your site based on a few different criteria:
Contextual targeting. AdSense crawlers scan your page, analyze your content, and serve up ads designed match your content. They do this using keyword analysis, word frequency, font size, and the link structure of the web.

Placement targeting. This allows advertisers to choose to run their ads on specific subsections of a publisher’s website. If your website matches an advertisers criteria, their ad will appear on your page.

Interest-based advertising. This lets advertisers reach users based on their interests and the user’s previous interactions with them, such as a visit to their website. Google’s Ads Preferences Manager allows users themselves to choose their interest categories, which further helps advertisers focus their ad campaigns. This method is good for monetizing your site more efficiently, as it increases the value for advertisers and provides a more relevant experience for users.

What’s it Worth?
Manage your expectations. When you sign up for AdSense, you’ll want to know what kind of revenue can you expect to see. There is a lot that goes into what kind of return you can expect, and managing those things will help you maximize your earning potential.

Traffic. First and foremost , in order to generate any kind of revenue from AdSense you must have people clicking on your ads. In order for this to happen, you need to have people on your site, reading your content! Whether you have a business website, or a personal blog, the rule is the same: Get the word out!
Heavily trafficked large sites can see over a million hits a day, whereas a blog might feel lucky if they have 100 visitors a day.

For every thousand page impressions (views) you receive, you may earn from $.05 to $5. Yes, that’s a broad range—over a month, that is between $1.50 and $150.00! Where in that range you can expect to frequent depends entirely on you, your site, and your promotion efforts.

Cost Per Click (CPC). This paid every time somebody clicks an ad on your page. No, you can’t click your own ad—Google will see this, and shut you down so fast your head will spin. The advertisers set the price for these ads, and they can vary greatly.
An advertiser may spend a lot on a per-click basis, but that ad may generate very little interest on your site.

An ad that may generate $.03 per click may get 100 hits, but that doesn’t add up to much.

Click-through Rate (CTR). This is the percentage of visitors to your site compared to how many them actually clicked on an ad. If 100 people came to your site, and 1 of them clicked an ad, your CTR is 1%, and that’s not an unreasonable number. You can see how getting more traffic to your site will really make a difference.

Revenue per 1000 impressions (RPM). This is an estimate of how much you might receive if you have 1000 impressions (page views).
If you made, for example, $1 for 100 impressions, your RPM would be $10. There is no guarantee you’ll make that, but it’s a good way to check the overall performance of your site.

Content is king. The quality of your content is an important factor in understanding your earning potential. If your site provides rich, compelling content and a great user experience, you will have more interested users. Google’s crawlers will also have an easier time determining the type of ad content would best fit on your site. Interested users + targeted ads = $$$

Start building keyword-rich pages. Liberally seed with well researched, profitable keywords, and get lots of high quality links to your site. If your site is about topics such as debt consolidation, web hosting or asbestos-related cancer, you’ll earn much more per click than if it’s about free puppies.

If you concentrate only on top-paying keywords, you’ll face stiff competition. What you want are keywords that are high in demand and low in supply, so do some careful keyword research before you build your pages.

Video
Tips
Avoid non-English characters on English pages. There is a bug which can cause these pages to show irrelevant French ads.

Quality is the most important part of any web site. If your site does not contain the content of expected quality the visitor might not come back,

Some webmasters are designing brand new sites specifically for serving AdSense text ads, however it’s against the AdSense rules to design a site purely for AdSense, so you’ll want to include a few Affiliate links or sell your own product, too.

Although Google doesn’t release exact details as to how they determine the ads to serve on a given page, they do say that it’s the text content of the page that matters, not the meta tags.

A great resource for earning money is using traffic driving sites like Flixya You can sign up for Google Adsense and Flixya, without the costs or time needed to build traffic or your own site.

Warnings
Do not click your ads. If Google catches you, they will suspend your account and retain any earnings you might have. However, if you, by mistakes, click your ads for one or two times, Google will keep that earning but rather not to punish you as long as it doesn’t happen constantly.

In early internet days, you may see a site notice asking everyone to click the ads. The day has gone long time ago. If Google detects possible cheating, there is no such thing as presumption of innocence. They assume that you are guilty.

Google has a lot of restrictions on how the ads have to be displayed. One of the major reasons for account suspension is that webmasters tried to blur the ads and mislead others to think that it’s “content”. For simplicity, never attempt to use CSS to hide Google’s logo unless you’re authorized to do it!

If you don’t have any content, Google will have to guess what your page is about. It may guess wrong, and so the ads that it displays may not be relevant.

Related wikiHows
How to Increase Website Traffic

How to Improve Search Engine Optimization

How to Make Money Online

How to Generate More Money in Network Marketing

How to Start Earning Money with Epom Ad Server

Sources and Citations
Google AdSense

Google Adsense Tips and Tools Collection

Google Adsense Calculator

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How to Play Skip Bo

Skip-Bo is a card game for 2 to 6 players that is similar to solitaire. The object is to get rid of your cards while blocking other players from discarding theirs. Since anyone over age 7 can play, Skip-Bo is a great game for families. Keep reading for detailed instructions on playing Skip-Bo.

Steps
Understanding the Rules
Know the objective. A Skip-Bo deck has a total of 144 cards numbered 1 to 12 and 16 “skip-bo” cards, which are wild. Each player is dealt a pile 10 – 30 cards, depending on the number of players. Each player’s pile of cards is called a stock pile. The point of Skip-Bo is to play every card in your stock pile in numerical order. The first person to play every card is the winner.[1]

Know how to use the different piles. Aside from each players stock pile, there are three other types of piles used for three different purposes. Understand how each one works before you start playing the game. After all of the cards have been dealt, the remaining cards are placed in the middle of the table where the game is being played. This is called the draw pile. Cards from this pile are drawn at the beginning of each person’s turn, and they are used to create building piles.

When play begins, players begin getting rid of their cards by starting building piles in the middle of the table. There are four building piles, and each one must start with either a 1 or a skip-bo card.

At the end of each turn, players discard a card into a discard pile. Each player can have up to four discard piles, which are placed face up. The cards in the discard piles can be used in succeeding turns to add to the build piles.

Know how to win the game. Throughout the game, the goal is to get rid of all of your cards as quickly as possible by putting them into building piles. The first person to play every card in his or her stock pile wins the game. You can strategize against other players by preventing them from getting rid of their cards more quickly than you get rid of yours. Since you can see what cards other players have in their discard piles, you can play cards that will block them from being able to play these cards.

You’ll get rid of your cards faster if you play the cards from your stock pile before playing those in your discard pile.

Setting Up the Game
Play at a large table. Since Skip-Bo involves so many different piles of cards, it’s best to play at a large, round table. That way everyone has room for their stockpile and four discard piles, and there’s room in the middle of the table for the draw pile and four building piles. Things can get pretty crowded if you try to play at a small table.

Shuffle and deal the cards. Since the deck is so big, you may need to divide it into more than one stack to shuffle it properly. When it comes to dealing, deal cards based on how many players you have. If you have two to four players, each player gets 30 cards. If you have five to seven players, each player gets 20 cards.[2]

Have each player make a stock pile. Each player should place their pile of cards directly in front of them on the table, face down. These are the players’ stock piles.

Create a draw pile. Put the extra cards face down in the middle of the table. This is the draw pile.

Playing the Game
Take the first round of turns. The first player begins by flipping over the top card in his or her stock pile. The player then draws five cards from the draw pile. Depending on the player’s hand, he or she then chooses one of the following options:
If the player has a 1 or a Skip-Bo wild card in his or her hand or at the top of his or her stock pile, the player is allowed to start a build pile. Each build pile is the beginning of a sequence, and the pile is “built” when more cards are added in sequential order – a 2, a 3, a 4, and so on. Gaps in the sequence may be filled in by Skip-Bo wild cards. The player continues to build until he or she no longer has any cards left to keep building the sequence, then discards one card to form a discard pile before ending his or her turn.

If the player doesn’t have a 1 or a Skip-Bo card, the player discards one card to form his or her first discard pile. Up to 4 discard piles can be formed in subsequent turns.

Have the second player take a turn. The second player overturns the top card in his or her stock pile, draws five cards from the draw pile, and continues in the same fashion described above to either build a new pile, add to an existing pile, or simply discard a card.

Continue taking turns. In subsequent turns, players draw enough cards to add up to a hand of five. If a player plays all five cards in one turn, then he or she draws five the next turn. If the player has three cards left after a turn, he or she draws two for his or her next turn.
After the first turn, players may use cards in their discard piles to add to the building piles.

When a building pile reaches the number 12, scoop it up and set it aside to be added to the draw pile when it runs down. A new building pile may be started in its place with a 1 or a Skip-Bo card.

Keep playing until someone’s stock pile runs out. Go around and around the table until a player runs out of cards in his or her stock pile. This player wins the game.

Video
Things You’ll Need
A deck of Skip-Bo cards

Hard surface to play on

2 to 6 players

Related wikiHows
How to Play the ‘Hairy Legs’ Card Game

How to Play Phase 10

How to Shoot the Moon in Hearts

How to Play Beanies

How to Play Pitch

How to Play the Skipping Record Game

Sources and Citations
Cite error: tags exist, but no tag was found

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How to Speed up Your Mac

Is your Mac running slower than usual? Prolonged use can lead to extra files and settings bloat that will slow down the performance of the computer. Follow this guide for a wide variety of tips and tricks, including removing unnecessary files, upgrading your hardware, defragging your hard drive and reinstalling your copy of Mac OS X.

Steps
Cleaning Up Your Desktop
Update your system. Keeping your software and operating system up to date will make sure that your system is secure and running at its best. When software is updated, oftentimes the performance of the software can increase. Staying updated and secure will also help keep malicious files from slowing down your computer.
Click the Apple menu and select Software Update. The program will check the internet for any available updates for your installed applications and your operating system.

Install the updates you want. In general, it is recommended that you install all available updates to ensure that you have all the latest fixes and security changes.

You can check for updates for apps installed with the App Store by opening the App Store and clicking the Updates tab. OS X Mountain Lion and later will include App Store updates in the general Software Update program. Older versions of OS X will need to update App Store apps through the store interface.

Uninstall old programs. While they may not be actively running, old programs take up storage space. This can be an issue if you are running out of room on your hard drive, as low free space can decrease performance. To uninstall applications, you normally just need to drag them to the trash can. This will leave behind old files and preferences, however, which can bog down your system. Try using an uninstaller application to completely remove old programs. There are several free and paid applications available from the App Store.

Clear out unnecessary desktop icons. Having too many icons on your screen can negatively impact your computer’s performance. This is because Mac OS X treats every icon as an individual window. The impact may be small, but can be noticeable if you have a large number of icons.

Disable widgets. If you are using the Dashboard and widgets, you may be eating up your system’s memory. Widgets are mini-programs that are constantly running in the background. Because of this, they are a small but constant drain on your system resources.
If you are using OS X 10.5 or earlier, you can access the Widget Manager from the Dashboard. Click the + sign in the Dashboard to open the Widget Bar. Select the Widgets icon on the left side of the row of icons. Uncheck any widgets you don’t want to use in the list.

If you are using OS X 10.4, you will need to manually delete widgets. Open the Finder, and then click the Go menu. Choose Home from the dropdown menu. Open your Library folder, and then find the Widgets folder. Drag any widgets that you wish to remove into the Trash Can.

If you don’t use widgets at all, you can disable the entire Dashboard. Open your Applications folder and then open Utilities. Select Terminal. In the Terminal, run the following commands:defaults write com.apple.dashboard mcx-disabled –boolean YESkillall DockTo return the Dashboard, reenter the same command but change YES to NO.

Changing Your Startup Items
Disable unnecessary programs. When new programs are installed, they sometimes start themselves up when Mac OS X boots up to save you time when you want to start the program. If you don’t use the program often, however, then all this does is increase the amount of time it takes to start the computer.

Open System Preferences. You can access the System Preferences by clicking the Apple menu in the top-left corner of the screen. In System Preferences, select Users & Groups from the Systems section. Select your user.

Choose your login items. Once you’ve selected the user, click the Login Items button. This will display a list of all the programs that start up when that user logs in. Use the – button to remove items from the list.

Maintaining and Optimizing the Hard Drive
Clean out old unused files. Keeping your hard drive clean and error-free is a great way to keep your Mac running smoothly. While you can go through your hard drive file by file to find things to delete, there are programs that will simplify the process.
One such program is Disk Inventory X, a free application that will graphically portray how much of your hard disk space is being taken by what kinds of files. You can then use the program to clean out specific files from your computer.

Another software program to use is Drive Genius, a $99 application that will help you speed up, clean up and optimize your Mac.

Remove unused language files. If you typically only use one or two languages with your Mac, you can remove the other language files to free up a substantial amount of hard disk space. To do this, you will need a program called Monolingual. This program is free and open-source, and older versions support older operating systems. Drive Genius has a tool called DriveSlim will help you free up space with: Duplicate Files Search, Large Files Search, Language Support Removal and Universal Binary slimming. Removing the English language files from Mac OS X can cause it to malfunction.

Verify your hard disk’s integrity. Regularly checking your hard disk can catch errors before they become a serious issue. OS X comes with a hard disk verification tool. You can access it by opening your Applications folder and then the Utilities folder. Select Disk Utility.
Select your hard disk from the frame on the left. In the main frame, click the First Aid tab, and then click the Verify Disk button. Disk Utility will then begin checking the disk. The results will be displayed in the readout frate. The check process may take a while, especially if you have a large drive.

Repair a damaged disk. If Disk Verification says that the disk has errors, click the Repair Disk button in the First Aid tab. Disk Utility will attempt to repair the errors. If the errors are serious, the hard drive may need to be replaced. There are other programs that will help with repairing the hard drive. Some of these options are Drive Genius or Disk Warrior.

Use a system cleaner. There are a variety of system optimizers available for both free and for purchase. These programs will optimize your applications and remove old, unused files. Some of the more popular options include CCleaner and Onyx

Defragging the Hard Drive
Over time opening, editing, saving and deleting files will cause the hard drive to become fragmented. When a file is saved it looks for empty space to save the file to and if the space is too small it will save the data to multiple locations. This way no disk space is wasted. However, this will cause the drive to slow down as it will need to scan multiple parts of the hard drive to locate and read the file. The more writing and deleting that is done to the hard drive, the more fragmented the drive will be. The process will gradually have an impact on the hard drive’s performance. This is why using a software program to defragment your computer is an excellent way to boost the performance of your computer.
Drive Genius has an Enhanced Defrag tool that puts all these broken up pieces together into one continuous block with all of the empty space at the end. The Defrag feature displays information in two separate tabs: Volume Fragmentation and File Fragmentation. Volume Fragmentation will display a graphical representation for a quick overview for the files laid across the hard drive. File Fragmentation will display a list of the files that are fragmented on the hard drive. This list will indicate which files are fragmented, how many fragments the file is spilt into, and how much space the file uses.

Adding More RAM
Purchase more memory. Depending on your system, you may be able to add more RAM (Random Access Memory). RAM allows programs to store information into quickly accessible memory, which increases the speed at which programs can operate.

Determine how much memory you currently have installed. Different systems will require different types of RAM. MacBooks will use different RAM than desktop Macs, and different models will use different speeds. Be sure to research what type of memory to purchase for your model, as well as if you can actually add more.
To find out how much memory you have installed, as well as the speed of the memory, click the Apple menu and select About This Mac. This will open a window showing your installed version of OS X, your processor, and your memory.

This screen does not tell you how much memory your system will support. Typically you can install up to 4GB, though there are some models of MacBooks that only support up to 2GB. Be sure to double check your documentation to see how much memory you can use.

If you have 2GB installed, and you want to install another 2GB, it may not be as simple as buying one stick of 2GB memory and inserting it. Chances are that you have two slots for RAM, and that each of these currently has a 1GB stick installed. In order to upgrade to 4GB, you would need to purchase 2 2GB sticks.

Open the computer. If you are installing MacBook memory, you will need to remove the back casing from the laptop. Be sure to note which screws belong to which holes, because some of the screws may be different sizes. If you are upgrading a desktop computer, you will need to remove the case so you can access the components.
When working with components inside the computer, be sure to discharge any static electricity by touching the bare metal of the laptop casing.

Eject the old RAM. If you are uninstalling MacBook RAM, the RAM slots will have metal ejection levers on the side. Press these in to pop the existing RAM up at an angle. Pull the RAM straight out by gripping the notches on the side and pulling firmly. If you are removing desktop RAM, the slots are vertical, and the latches are plastic and located on each end.

Install the new RAM. If you are installing MacBook RAM, insert it in at the same angle that it ejected. Install memory into the lower slot first, then the upper slot. Push firmly with even pressure directly into the slot until the stick clicks into place. If you are installing RAM for a desktop, insert it straight into the slot and push evenly until the stick clicks into place.

Reboot your computer. You can verify that the RAM was installed correctly by clicking the Apple menu and selecting About This Mac. Verify that the correct RAM total is displayed. If it is not, you may have incorrectly installed the RAM, or installed the wrong type.

Reinstalling Mac OS X
Reboot in Recovery mode. If your system is bogged down, and nothing seems to be able to fix it, you may need to format and reinstall your installation of Mac OS X. Make sure that you have any important files backed up before reinstalling, as all of your data will be deleted.
To reboot into Recovery mode, click the Apple menu and select Restart. While the computer is rebooting, hold down the Command + R button. The Recovery menu will open after the computer boots.

Erase the disk. Select Disk Utility from the Recovery menu. From the list of your drives, select the hard drive that OS X is installed on. Click the Erase tab, and then select Mac OS Extended (Journaled) in the Format menu. Enter a name for the hard disk and click Erase.
After the erase process is complete, click Disk Utility and then select Quit Disk Utility.

Connect to a network. In order to reinstall Mac OS X, you will need to have an internet connection. This can either be via a wired connection, or via Wi-Fi. You can access the Wi-Fi menu at the top-right corner of the screen.

Reinstall Mac OS X. Click the Reinstall Mac OS X button and then click Continue. You will need to accept the license agreement, and confirm that you accept it. Then, select the disk that you want to install Mac OS X on. This should be the disk that you erased in the second step of this section. You will be asked for your Apple ID in order to proceed with the installation. Once you sign in, the installation will begin. The process can take up to an hour.

Once installation is complete, the computer will reboot and your newly reinstalled copy of Mac OS X will begin. You will need to set some basic preferences, such as language and date & time settings.

Video
Related wikiHows
How to Lock a Mac Computer

How to Find the MAC Address of Your Computer

How to Delete Locked Files on a Mac

How to Free up Space on Your Macintosh Computer

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How to Make Dyed Coffee Filter Snowflakes

Coffee filter snowflakes are quick, easy, inexpensive decorations! They are also a fantastic craft for young children and the young at heart. A few easy steps and materials and you are ready to start!

Steps
Get your coffee filter. This is what will become your snowflake. White coffee filters will yield the most colorful results.

Fold the coffee filter in half.

Fold it in half again, creating fourths.

Fold the filter in half again, into eighths.

Cut out your snowflake’s design. This is similar to typical regular paper snowflakes. It can be as simple or as complex as you want. Cutting triangles tend to be easiest, but rounded shapes are possible too.

Unfold your snowflake. It should have a repeating pattern around it.

Color your snowflake with the markers. These have to be the washable kind, which are water based.
Your coloring does not have to be neat; the design will spread and blurinto colored blobs.

Crumple your colored snowflake and submerge it in a bowl of water. The longer it is submerged, the more blurred the colors will get. It only needs to be submerged for a second or two.
Alternatively, you could use a spray bottle and spray water on the snowflake. This will result in a less blurred, more colorful snowflake. It also may be a little less messy when working with children, as they tend to slop water everywhere.

Remove the flake from the water and squeeze it out.

Unfold your snowflake. Be gentle, as wet filters tear easily.

Dry it on a surface, such as a towel. Alternatively, you can simply stickit wet on a window and it will hang there until it dries and falls off. Enjoy!

Do this project again and again! A good project with young children isworth repeating. With a few variations, this project can be done again to easily fit another theme. For example:
Do not cut the paper filter – just “tie-dye” it. Just by itself it is pretty. It also creates a nice “stained glass” effect which is nice for a unit on the Middle Ages.

You could also create a flower. Again, skip the cutting steps. When dry,add a green chenille stick and paper leaf. Give the paper a small twist to create a flower!

Tips
The snowflakes don’t have to be made with just “snowflake colors” like blue or gray. It could be a rainbow snowflake, or a fire snowflake. Anything goes!

Several of these snowflakes hung on a string or yarn makes a lovely festive garland.

This can also be done with watercolor paint and brushes instead of marker.

After drying, try painting the snowflake with glue and add glitter for a final touch – a great way to extend the activity for older children.

Coffee filters can be just painted without cutting! (This is great for younger children or a very quick art project)

Warnings
Cover surfaces with newspaper, old towels, or the like. Your markers might bleed through the filter.

If you stick your snowflake directly to the window, without tape it will dry and fall off eventually.

Marker and paint will bleed onto clothing. Be sure to be careful, protect clothing, and use only washable markers or paint.

Things You’ll Need
Water

A coffee filter

A bowl

Water-based (washable) markers

Scissors

Related wikiHows
How to Make a Paper Snowflake

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How to Begin an Essay

The first paragraph or so of an essay is usually the most important part of the whole essay to get “just right”. Not only is it an opportunity to grab the reader’s attention, but also a chance to set the agenda for the rest of the essay in terms of tone and content. Strictly speaking, there is no single “right” way to begin an essay — just as it’s possible to write essays about countless subjects, so too is it possible to begin an essay in countless ways. However, most good beginnings to essays share certain qualities which, if taken into account, can greatly improve essay intros that may otherwise be lacking. See Step 1 below to get started!

Steps
Essay Template and Sample Essays
Essay Template
Sample Ozymandias Essay

Laying the Roadmap for Your Essay
Start with an attention-grabbing sentence. While your essay may (or, admittedly, may not) be interesting to you, the writer, it’s not necessarily interesting to the reader. Readers, by and large, are somewhat picky about what they read and what they don’t. If a piece of writing doesn’t immediately catch their attention in the first paragraph, there’s a good chance they won’t bother to read the rest of it. Because of this, it’s often a good idea to begin an essay with a sentence that commands the reader’s attention from the get-go. So long as this first sentence is logically connected to the rest of the article, there’s no shame in being attention-grabbing right out of the gate.
You may want to start with a fascinating, little-known fact or statistic to grab your reader’s attention. For instance, if we’re writing an essay on the growing danger of childhood obesity worldwide, we might start with this: “Contrary to the popular idea that childhood obesity is only a problem for rich, pampered Westerners, the WHO reports that in 2012, over 30% of preschool-age children in developing countries were overweight or obese.”[1] On the other hand, if it fits into your essay more logically, you may want to start with a particularly gripping image or description. For an essay on your summer vacation, you might start with this: “When I felt the Costa Rican sun filtering through the jungle canopy and heard the sound of howler monkeys far off in the distance, I knew that I had found someplace very special.”

Draw your reader into the “meat” of your essay. A great first sentence can get the reader’s attention, but if you don’t keep pulling the reader into your essay, she can still easily lose interest. Follow your very first sentence with a sentence or two that logically link the attention grabbing “hook” in the first sentence to the rest of the essay as a whole. Often, these sentences will expand on the narrow scope of the first sentence, placing the specific snapshot you present initially in some sort of larger context.
For example, in our obesity essay, we might follow our first sentence as follows: “In fact, childhood obesity is a growing problem that is increasingly affecting rich and poor countries alike.” This sentence explains the urgency of the problem described in the first sentence and gives a broader context.

For our vacation essay, we might follow our first sentence with something like this: “I was deep in the jungles of Tortuguero National Park, and I was lost in more ways than one.” This sentence tells the reader where the imagery in the first sentence comes from and leads the reader into the rest of the essay by teasing that it will eventually be revealed how the narrator is “lost”.

Tell the reader what your essay is about. Most of the time, essays aren’t purely descriptive — they don’t exist solely to tell you what something is in basic, factual terms. Usually, they have a specific purpose beyond this. This can be almost anything. The essay may aim to change the reader’s mind about a certain topic, persuade the reader into taking action for a specific cause, shed light on something that’s not well understood, or simply tell a thought-provoking story. In any case, the basic purpose of the first paragraph or so of an essay is to tell the reader what the purpose of the essay is. This way, the reader can quickly choose whether to continue to the rest of the essay or not.
In our obesity essay, we might sum things up by proceeding like this: “The purpose of this essay is to analyze current trends in childhood obesity rates worldwide and recommend specific policy initiatives to combat this growing problem.” This clearly and plainly tells what the essay aims to do. There is no confusion here.

For our vacation essay, we might try something like this: “This is thestory of my summer in Costa Rica, a summer that neither spider bites nor rotten plantains nor Giardia could keep from being life-changing.” This tells the reader that they’ll be reading an account of one person’s journey to a foreign country while teasing specific details about what’s in store in the body of the essay.

Optionally, outline the structure of your essay. Sometimes, it’sappropriate to go one step further in the intro to describe how your essay plans to achieve its purpose. This can be useful if your essay can easily be broken down into distinct, specific sections in a way that will make the topic easier to grasp for the reader. It’s also useful to know how to do this if you’re a student because some teachers will require you to do so. However, specifically outlining the different pieces of your essay in the introduction isn’t always a good idea. In some cases, especially for light-hearted essays, this can read as somewhat mechanical and can intimidate the reader by presenting too much info upfront.
For our obesity essay, we might continue like this: “This essay addresses three main global health concerns: the rising availability of high-calorie food, the decline in physical exercise, and the growing popularity of sedentary leisure activities.” For a straightforward research essay like this, outlining the main topics of discussion is a good idea because it allows the reader to immediately understand the essay’s justification for the purpose explained in the previous sentence.

On the other hand, for our vacation essay, we probably wouldn’t outline our essay in this way. Since we’ve established that our essay is lighthearted and playful, it would sound somewhat bizarre to continue with, for instance: “By experiencing both city life in the capital of San Jose and rural life in the jungles of Tortuguero, I changed as a person during my trip.” It’s not a terrible sentence, but it doesn’t flow well with the other ones we’ve used so far because it applies a strict, rigid structure where none is needed.

If necessary, include a thesis statement. In essay-writing, a thesis statement is a single sentences that describes the “point” of the essay as clearly and concisely as possible. Some essays, especially five-paragraph essays written for academic assignments or as part of a standardized test, more or less require you to include a thesis statement as part of the opening paragraph. Even essays that don’t require this convention can benefit from the concise purpose-defining power of a bold thesis statement. Generally, thesis statements are included at or near the end of the first paragraph, though there are no hard and fast rules about where, specifically, thesis statements must be.
For our obesity essay, since we’re dealing with a serious topic and writing about it in a clinical, straightforward way, we might be fairly direct with our thesis statement: “By analyzing available survey data, this essay aims to pinpoint specific policy initiatives as likely paths to global obesity reduction.” This thesis statement tells the reader in relatively few words exactly what the purpose of the essay is.

We probably wouldn’t include a single thesis statement for our vacation essay. Since we’re more interested in setting a mood, telling a story, and illustrating personal themes, a direct, clinical statement like “This essay will describe my summer vacation to Costa Rica in great detail” will sound oddly forced and unnecessary.

Set an appropriate tone for your essay. In addition to being your space to discuss what you’re going to talk about in your essay, your first paragraph or so is also a space to establish how you’re going to talk about it. The way you write — your writing voice — is part of what encourages (or discourages) your readers from reading your article. If your tone in the beginning of your essay is clear, pleasing, and appropriate for the subject matter, your readers will be more likely to read than if it’s muddled, varies greatly from sentence to sentence, or is mismatched with the topic at hand. Take a look at the sentences for our example essays above. Notice that, while the obesity essay and the vacation essay have very distinct voices, both are clearly written and are appropriate for the subject matter. The obesity essay is a serious, analytical piece of writing dealing with a public health problem, so it’s reasonable for the sentences to be somewhat clinical and to-the-point. On the other point,the vacation essay is about a fun, exciting experience that had a major effect on the writer, so it’s reasonable that the sentences are a little more playful, containing exciting details and conveying the writer’s sense of wonder.

Cut to the chase! One of the most important rules when it comes to introductions is that shorter is almost always better. If you can convey all the information that you need to convey in five sentences rather than six, do it. If you can use a simple, everyday word in place of a more obscure word (e.g., “start” vs. “initiate”), do it. If you can get your sentence’s message across in ten words rather than twelve, do it. Wherever you can make your introductory passages shorter without sacrificing quality or clarity, do so. Remember, the beginning of your essay serves to get your reader into the meat of the essay, but it’s not the meat of the essay itself, so keep it short. As noted above, while you should strive for brevity, you shouldn’t shorten your introduction so much that it becomes unclear or illogical. For instance, in our obesity essay, we shouldn’t shorten this sentence: “In fact, childhood obesity is a global problem that is increasingly affecting rich and poor countries alike.” …to this: “In fact, obesity is actually a big problem.” This second sentence doesn’t tell the whole story — the essay is about the rising global incidence of childhood obesity, not the fact that obesity is bad for you in general.

Tailoring Your Intro to Your Essay
For argumentative essays, sum up your argument. Though all essays areunique (besides plagiarized ones), certain strategies can help you make the most of your essay based on the specific type of writing you’re doing. For instance, if you’re writing an argumentative essay — that is, one that argues a specific point with the hope of persuading the reader into agreement — it can be helpful to focus on summarizing your argument in the introductory paragraph (or paragraphs) of the essay. Doing this gives the reader a quick rundown of the logic you’re going to use to support your argument. For instance, if we’re arguing against a proposed local sales tax, we might include something like the following in our first paragraph: “The proposed sales tax is regressive and fiscally irresponsible. By proving that the sales tax puts a disproportionate tax burden on the poor and that it has a net negative effect on the local economy, this essay intends to prove these points beyond a shadow of a doubt.” This approach tells the reader right away what your main arguments are going to be, which gives your argument legitimacy from the very first paragraph.

For creative writing, be attention-grabbing. Creative writing and fiction can be more emotionally charged than other pieces of writing. For these types of essays, you can usually get away with beginning your essay with a metaphorical bang. Making an effort to be exciting or memorable in your first few sentences is a great way to draw readers into your work. Also, since creative writing doesn’t require some of the more mechanical aspects of argumentative writing (like outlining your essay’s structure, stating its purpose, etc.), you have room to get creative here.
For example, if we’re writing a thrilling short story about a girl on the run from the law, we might start with some exciting imagery: “Sirens echoed through the cigarette-burnt walls of the flophouse. Red and blue flashed like paparazzi’s cameras on the shower curtain. Sweat mingled with rusty water on the barrel of her gun.” Now this story sounds exciting!

It’s also worth noting that your first few sentences can be compelling without being action-packed. Consider the first few lines of J. R. R. Tolkein’s The Hobbit: “In a hole in the ground there lived a hobbit. Not a nasty, dirty, wet hole, filled with the ends of worms and an oozy smell, nor yet a dry, bare, sandy hole with nothing in it to sit down on or to eat: it was a hobbit-hole, and that means comfort.” This raises intriguing questions right away: What is a hobbit? Why does it live in a hole? The reader has to keep reading to find out!

For arts/entertainment writing, tie specific details to your overall theme. Writing in the area of arts and entertainment (like movie reviews, book reports, etc.) carries fewer rules and expectations than technical writing, but the beginnings of essays written in this style can still benefit from an overarching strategy. In these cases, while you can get away with a little playfulness in the beginning of your essay, you’ll usually want to take care to ensure that you describe your essay’s overall theme or focus even as you pinpoint small, specific details.
For example, if we’re writing a review and analysis of P.T. Anderson’s film The Master, we might start like this: “There’s a moment in The Master that’s small, but hard to forget. Speaking to his teenage paramour for the very last time, Joaquin Phoenix’s naval washout suddenly tears through the window screen that’s separating them and embraces the girl in a passionate kiss. It’s at once beautiful and perverse, and perfectly emblematic of the twisted depiction of love the film presents.” This opening uses a small, compelling moment from the film to enlighten the reader the essay’s main theme in a compelling way.

For technical/scientific essays, stay clinical. Of course, not all writing can be wild and exciting. Wit and whimsy have no place in the world of serious analytical, technical, and scientific writing. These types of writing exist for practical purposes — to inform relevant individuals about serious, specific topics. Since the purpose of essays written in these topics is to be purely informative (and occasionally persuasive), you should not include jokes, colorful imagery, or anything else that’s not directly related to the task at hand.
For instance, if we’re writing an analytical essay on the strengths and weaknesses of different methods of protecting metal from corrosion, we might begin like this: “Corrosion is an electrochemical process by which metals react with their environment and degrade. Since this poses a serious problem to the structural integrity of metal objects and structures, various means of protecting against corrosion have been developed.” This beginning is blunt and to-the-point. No time is wasted on style or flash.

Note that essays written in this style often contain abstracts or summaries before the essay itself which succinctly tell the reader what the essay is about in broad strokes. See How to Write an Abstract for more information.

For journalism, address the most important info first. Journalistic essay writing differs somewhat from other essay styles. In journalism, there is usually a great effort made to focus on the pure facts of the story, rather than the writer’s opinion, so the introductory passages of a journalistic essay can tend to be somewhat descriptive, rather than argumentative, persuasive, etc. In serious, objective journalism, writers are often encouraged to put the most important information in the article in the very first sentence so that readers can learn the essentials of a story within seconds of reading the headline.
For instance, if we’re a journalist tasked with covering a local fire, we might begin our piece like this: “Four apartment buildings on the 800 block of Cherry avenue suffered a severe electrical fire Saturday night. While there were no fatalities, five adults and a child were rushed to Skyline Hospital for injuries sustained in the blaze.” By beginning with the absolute essentials, we give the majority of the readers the information they want to know immediately.

In the subsequent paragraphs, we can dive into the details and context surrounding the event so that the readers who stick around past the first paragraph can learn more.

Using Intro-Writing Strategies
Try writing your intro last, rather than first. When the time comes tobegin their essay, many writers forget that there’s no rule that says that you have to write the beginning of the essay first. In fact, it’s acceptable to start anywhere in the essay that suits your purposes, including in the middle and the end, so long as you eventually tie the entire essay together. If you’re unsure of how to start or don’t even know exactly what your essay is about yet, try skipping the beginning for the time being. You’ll eventually need to write it, but once you’ve written the rest of your essay, you may have a much firmer grasp on your topic than when you began.

Brainstorm. Sometimes, even the best writers run out of ideas. If you’re having a hard time even getting started with your intro, try brainstorming. Get a fresh sheet of paper and write down ideas as they come to you in a rapid-fire fashion. These don’t necessarily have to be good ideas — sometimes, seeing ideas that you definitely shouldn’t use can inspire you to think up ideas that you definitely should.
You may also want to try a related exercise called free-form writing. When free-form writing, you begin writing anything — absolutely anything — and keep writing sentences in a stream-of-consciousness fashion to get your juices flowing. The end result doesn’t have to make sense. If there’s a tiny kernel of inspiration in your ramblings, you’ll have benefited.

Revise, revise, revise. First drafts that can’t be improved in some way by editing and reviewing are very, very rare. A good writer knows never to turn in a piece of writing without going over it at least once or twice. Reviewing and revising allows you to spot spelling and grammar errors, fix portions of your writing that are unclear, omit unnecessary information, and much more. This is especially important in the very beginning of your essay, where otherwise minor errors can reflect negatively upon your status as a writer, so be sure to give your essay’s beginning a thorough revision. For example, consider an essay in which the very first sentence contains a small grammar error. Though the error is minor, the fact that it occurs in such a prominent place may lead the reader to assume that the writer is careless or unprofessional. If you’re writing for money (or a grade), this is a risk you definitely don’t want to take.

Get another person’s opinion. No writer writes in a vacuum. If you’re feeling uninspired, try talking to someone whose opinion you respect to get their perspective on the beginning of your essay. Because this other person isn’t as invested in your writing as you are, s/he may be able to offer an outsider’s point of view, pointing out things that may not have occurred to you precisely because you were focused on writing the perfect beginning to your essay.
Don’t be afraid to reach out to teachers, professors, and other types of people who may have assigned you the essay in the first place. Most of the time, these people will take the fact that you’re asking for advice as a sign that you view the essay seriously. In addition, because these people will most likely have an image in their mind of what the final product should be like, they can give you advice to help you write your essay exactly as they want it.

Video
Tips
Be sure that you can write enough on a topic and mix up your sentences a bit. Nothing is worse than reading one boring paper after another. Excitement is a single key if you can’t get into your subject your reader can’t and this will result in a poor grade.

When selecting a topic write a thesis statement if you can’t you may need to narrow/widen your topic or change an unusable topic.

When asking for editing help be polite and respectful. The best person to ask editing help from is the assigning teacher/professor.

The kid with all A’s probably has some form of help from the/a teacher/professor.

If you do too poorly on an essay your teacher/professor might be tempted to lean the grade in your favor.

Editing is your friend, save your work so you don’t have to rewrite the entire thing. All essays no matter how bad the punctuation, spelling, or grammar can easily be fixed.

Warnings
If you don’t do your essay, you may fail the class.

Related wikiHows
How to Begin a Persuasive Essay

How to Write an Analytical Essay

Sources and Citations
http://www1.aucegypt.edu/academic/writers/introduction.htm

http://writingcenter.unc.edu/handouts/introductions/

http://www.writing.utoronto.ca/advice/planning-and-organizing/intros-and-conclusions

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